There is a lot of confusion over these five scouts, but initially there were five, not four as many think. Some of the names used by Camp and Roger Williams cannot be verified, e. g., Broken Penis, and the addition of the Arikara accounts only adds additional names to the confusion. I have done a fair amount of work on these fellows and this is what I have concluded:
Caroo (aka, Bear Running in the Timber; Bear Come Out; Comes The Bear; and Bear Going in the Woods; also, “Old Caddoo”; Cards).
Ma-tok-sha (aka, Bear Waiting; Bear-Come-Out, though this may be problematic and may have been confused with Caroo, above; Carrier; Round Wooden Cloud; possibly Ring Cloud [see Whole Buffalo, below, for the confusion; also, Smalley, More Little Bighorn Mysteries, 5 – 5], though his age works against him from a Walter Camp interview; Watoksha).
White Cloud (Machpeya-ska; Mach-pe-as-ka).
Whole Buffalo (aka, Bear Running In The Timber; also possibly, Buffalo Ancestor, Buffalo Body, Round Wooden Cloud, Ring Cloud [see Ma-tok-sha, above] which is Mahpiya Changleska; and Pta-a-te; Tonhechi Tu. If he was indeed Ring Cloud—and his date of birth is more correct for his age than Ma-tok-sha, above, he took on the English name of “Adam Carrier” [Hardorff, On the Little Bighorn with Walter Camp, 85, FN 5]). In Camp/Hammer, Custer in ’76, 183, FN 2, Hammer claims he was also known as Watoksha. Either this is incorrect or the Indian name for the Arikara, Rushing Bull, is incorrect. This is further confused because Hammer includes the name Spotted Horn Cloud—another name for Rushing Bull—along with Ring Cloud (see Ma-tok-sha, above). It would seem logical that “Spotted Horn Cloud” would be this fellow and not Rushing Bull, but until I have further evidence, I shall keep the names the way I have them. On 184, the comment was made that someone saw Whole Buffalo coming down the valley. That would indicate he is not the same person alluded to in the footnote above. In FN 5, 190 of the Soldier interview, Whole Buffalo’s names are listed. In the main text alluding to the footnote, Soldier uses Watoksha as a separate person, seemingly clinching it.
Left Hand (Chat-ka)—b. 1829 – d. June 25, 1876, killed at the Little Big Horn. An interesting case, here. Reputedly, he fought at the LBH, but not for the soldiers. Left Hand and Scabby (Barking) Wolf left for FAL during the snowstorm of June 1-2, 1876, and he was discharged on June 9, 1876. He then re-joined his people in time for the battle. His body and his dead horse were found in the Indian village after the fighting was over. “They [several Rees] went on to the Dakota camp and found the body of a dead Dakota lying on a tanned buffalo hide. Young Hawk recognized this warrior as one who had been a scout at Fort Lincoln, Chat-ka. He had on a white shirt, the shoulders were painted green, and on his forehead, painted in red, was the sign of a secret society” [Libby, The Arikara Narrative, 109]. In the typical drama that so often trails certain names associated with this campaign, Roger Williams makes no allowance for Left Hand being a Sioux and claims the name showed up on the post returns for June 1876, the man re-enlisting on June 10, 1876, and then being discharged December 10, 1876. If this is correct, then there had to have been two Left Hands, one a Ree and one a Dakota.
The “Dakota” or “Santee” Sioux were the Eastern Sioux, or Isanti grouping. They were also known as Waist and Skirt Indians. Myers lists the Teton as well as the Santee Sioux as a sub-group of the Dakota, but this link may be tenuous. The Sioux were the largest single tribe in the Siouan family grouping and were considered the “mother” nation [Smalley, More Little Bighorn Mysteries, 11 – 16]. The Dakota were one of two groups primarily east of the Missouri River, mainly Iowa, Minnesota—west of the Red River—with some members as far east as Wisconsin. They spoke the Eastern or “D” dialect of the parent language: Santee-Sisseton Dakota.
There were four divisions:
• Sisseton • Wahpeton (“village in the leaves”) • Mdwekanton or Mdewkanton • Wahpekute (smallest of the four, never totaling more than 550 people [Donovan, A Terrible Glory, 69]). Known as the “Red Tops” because of the red cloth they tied around the tops of their spears.
The Santee always camped beside the Hunkpapa, quite possibly for protection, because there were so few of them. Evan Connell [Son of the Morning Star] claimed the Santee were the only tribe that habitually practiced decapitation instead of scalping. Wooden Leg, the Northern Cheyenne warrior, however, describes at least two incidents when he was younger, of Cheyenne warriors decapitating their Indian victims [Marquis, Wooden Leg, 12 and 22]. Cutting a victim’s throat was usually a Sioux practice, left over from when they habitually chopped off their enemies’ heads. By the time of the Custer fight, only the Santee still practiced the ghoulish art. According to the Oglala warrior, He Dog, there were only about 30-40 Santee lodges at the Little Big Horn [Camp/Hammer, Custer in ’76, 206]. James Donovan wrote that there were thirty Dakota and Nakota lodges, combined, in the village [A Terrible Glory, 148; probably from Campbell].
Best wishes, Fred.
Last Edit: May 5, 2016 18:08:23 GMT -5 by Deleted
General of the Army (Medicine Man/Chief))