in reference to Trumpet Calls - there is a link (I am sure the veterans have it, but for other folks doing research that points to the Bugle, Fife, and Drum signals 1887. This reprints many numerous calls that came from the late 1860s Upton guide on tactics.
Also has over 50 PDF files associated with various regulations, exercises.
One that is interesting given that the bugle is the command and control tool for an officer in a fire fight is the Cavalry Tactics School of the Trooper, of the Platoon, and of the Squadron Dismounted. This refers to Bugle Calls and Signals on page 91 and 92.
An Introductory History of the Bugle, From its Early Origins to the Present Day,
By Jari Villanueva
“The basic difference between bugles and trumpets is found in the shape of the bell. The musical definition of a trumpet (natural trumpet) is that of a horn which has two thirds of its length in the form of a cylindrical tube—usually it is five sixths of the total length. A bugle has a conical shape throughout. We can therefore make the general assumption that a trumpet is cylindrically shaped with a cup-shaped mouthpiece, while a bugle is conical in nature with a funnel-shaped mouthpiece. The shape of the bell plus the shape of the mouthpiece produces a different quality of sound in each. The trumpet is known for its bright, strident, brash sound, while the bugle is known for its darker and mellower tone. Today, the term “bugle” can simply mean a brass instrument without valves or slides.
“Another shared attribute of the bugle and the natural trumpet is the number of notes they can produce. Natural trumpets and bugles, unlike the modern three-valved instruments today, can only produce a limited number of notes found in the harmonic series of a single fundamental tone. All musical sounds that we hear contain overtones, or tones that resonate in fixed relationships above a fundamental frequency. In Western tradition, we credit Pythagoras with discovering the harmonic (or overtone) series; however, other peoples such as the Egyptians, Chinese, and Babylonians knew of harmonics before he did. Pythagoras discovered that a monochord (single tone) vibrates not only at its fundamental frequency, but also in partial segments—halves, thirds, fourths, etc., to a theoretically infinite degree. The harmonic series are the notes (or partials) that are created when a fundamental note is struck. It is the presence of these overtones that creates tonal color, and that helps us to differentiate the sounds of a harpsichord and a piano, a trumpet and a trombone, or one voice and another. Humans do not perceive overtones much past the fifteenth partial, because as overtones become higher, they become increasingly difficult to hear….
“The military has long blurred the distinction between the two and still does to this day. It is interesting to note that today when a brass player is assigned to “bugler duty” that person will show up with a modern Bb valved trumpet to sound bugle calls….
“After the [American] Revolution, during the 1790s when the U. S. Army briefly assumed its unique legion structure, Congress authorized one “trumpeter” in each of the four company-size units of the legion’s dragoon squadron. In the cavalry volume of an unofficial military treatise published in 1798, American compiler E. Hoyt listed and described trumpet calls, including “Boots and Saddles.” Hoyt’s 1811 Practical Instructions for Military Officers covers trumpets (“Each troop of cavalry has one”) and “Bugle-horns” (“now used by the light infantry and rifle corps…also used by the horse artillery and some regiments of cavalry”). Another compiler of military information, William Duane, in his 1809 compendium, proposed a standard system of signals for the army’s field instruments and adapted his music to the bugle.
“An early—possibly the earliest—officially promulgated reference to a bugle appears in War Department General Order 38 of 1825, which authorized two bugles to be furnished those companies designated light artillery, grenadiers, light infantry or rifles. Unfortunately there is no copy of that order on file at the United States Army Military History Institute, but it is cited in an index of War Dept. General Orders spanning 1809-1860.
“Another early attempt was the keyed trumpet and keyed bugle. The keyed trumpet is about 40 centimeters long and is held in a horizontal plane. The best way to think of these instruments is as almost a hybrid of a saxophone and a natural trumpet. There are a number of keys (between five and nine) placed around the instrument and the pitch is raised or lowered by opening any combination. The tone is produced with a metal mouthpiece as with any other brass horn. Both Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809) and Johann Nepomuk Hummel (1778-1837) wrote concertos for the keyed trumpet and their works were the hallmarks of the literature for the trumpet. The invention of the keyed trumpet is attributed to Anton Weidinger of Vienna in 1801. Weidinger was a court trumpeter who was employed as a military trumpeter and theater musician, for whom Haydn wrote his concerto.
“The keyed bugle was essentially the same as the keyed trumpet but with the bugle’s distinctive conical shape. The keyed bugle was made originally in England and became known to the public through the works of Richard Willis (17?-1830), an arranger, composer and performer. The first patent was made by Joseph Halliday (dates unknown) in 1811. Halliday named his new instrument the Royal Kent bugle in honor of the Duke of Kent. His patent called for five keys and the instrument made its way to the United States with Willis when he was appointed bandmaster of the United States Military Academy Band at West Point, New York….”
Stable call—summons all riders and teamsters to assemble at the grain pile with feedbags
Breakfast call—prepare and eat breakfast
The general—take down tents and prepare to move
Boots and saddles—the signal to saddle
Stand to horse—soldier stands next to his mount
Officers’ call—officers assemble by the CO
Taps (To extinguish lights)—final call of the night; lights out, no more noise
To the standard
“For the Service of Skirmishers”--
To the left
To the right
Change direction to the right
Change direction to the left
To cease firing
Charge as foragers
A post on the LBHA message boards by a poster named “Willy,” January 17, 2015—
Have always believed infantry used drums and fifes and cavalry used bugles/trumpets. Per 7th Cav muster rolls, Co. G began change to Trumpeter Oct 1867; Co. B was last to make change April 1875. Similar story re Company to Troop, which began throughout cavalry service in early 1881, though Circular not issued till Sept 1883, unless actual directive has been missed. Rolls of Co. L 7th Cav used Troop during 1877.